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My Current Research Projects

WR Rings:  Infrared observations of Hot Star Winds and Circumstellar Nebulae

HEXOS: Herschel/HIFI Observations of EXtraOrdinary Sources: The Orion and Sagittarius B2 Starforming Regions.

Carbon Chemistry in Orion KL:
Mapping of C+ , CH+, CH, CH3OH

Wolf-Rayet "Red Eyes" Search:  Discovering rare hidden massive stars by their infrared colors and spectroscopy

Luminous Blue Variable eta Carina's far infrared gas and dust with Herschel

 Patrick W. Morris

NASA Herschel Science Center
IPAC M/C 100-22
California Institute of Technology
770 South Wilson Avenue
Pasadena, CA 91125

Senior Staff Scientist
Infrared Processing and Analysis Center
California Institute of Technology

  • B.Sc. Physics, University,of Illinois Chicago (1988)
  • M.Sc. Physics, University of Colorado at Boulder (1991)
  • Ph.D. Physics, University of Colorado at Boulder (1995)

Research Interests
  • Stellar populations
  • Winds, environments and evolution of massive OB-type, Luminous Blue Variable, and Wolf-Rayet stars 
  • Physical conditions and chemistry in molecular clouds and massive star forming regions
  • Design, construction and scientific commissioning of novel instrumentation for spectroscopy over infrared to sub-millimeter wavelengths from space


Herschel icon Herschel  ESA's Herschel Space Observatory (formerly FIRST, the  Far-Infrared Space Telescope) was launched with the Planck satellite on an Ariane 5 ECV from Kourou, French Guiana on 14 May 2009.  The 3.5 meter primary mirror is the largest in space to date.  Herschel carries 3 cryogenically-cooled science instruments, for imaging photometry and spectroscopy between 55 and 672 microns. Herschel's current list scientific achievements are collected here.

hificartoonSince 2005 I'm the Instrument Task Lead for Herschel's Heterodyne Instrument for the Far Infrared (HIFI), an ultra-high resolution spectrometer for astrochemistry, capable of carrying out observations of sub-mm atomic and molecular lines to better than 100 meters/second velocity resolution.  Key components of HIFI have been provided by JPL.  The P.I. institute is the Netherlands Institute for Space Research (SRON) where I worked after my Ph.D. in scientific support of ISO's Short Wavelength Spectrometer.  

Spitzer Icon Spitzer  NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope (formerly SIRTF, the Space Infrared Telescope Facility) with a 0.85 meter beryllium mirror was launched into space by a Boeing Delta II "heavy" rocket from Cape Canaveral, Florida on 25 August 2003.  It carried 3 cryogenically-cooled science instruments for imaging and spectroscopy between 3 and 200 microns, all operated until He3 cryogen depletion in May 2009. Spitzer’s cryogen was projected to last for ~2.5 years, but the cryostat's efficient design and careful operations enabled it to last more than 5.5 years.  One of the imaging instruments continues to produce science data with partial operation at ambient space temperatures.

IRSFPU I arrived to IPAC at Caltech in 2000 and worked as an Instrument Scientist on the InfraRed Spectrograph (IRS) until 2005, through the assembly, integration and testing phases leading up to launch, and then on-orbit scientific commissioning.  The IRS provided moderate resolution spectroscopy between 5 and 40 microns with extremely good sensitivities, and unique imaging at 16 and 22 microns.  The P.I. institute is at Cornell University.

ISO icon

ISO ESA's Infrared Space Observatory with its 1.8 meter primary mirror was launched on an Airane 44P rocket from Korou, French Guiana, on 17 November 1995, carrying 4 cryogenically-cooled science instruments for imaging and spectroscopy between 2.4 and 240 microns.  ISO's unprecedented sensitivities and coverage of the thermal infrared regime produced a long list of first discoveries in nearly every discipline of astronomy and planetary science.  ISO's cryogen was required to last about 18 months, instead the efficient design of the cryostat extended the scientific cold mission by more than a year.

 swsI joined the Netherlands Institute for Space Research (SRON) after finishing my Ph.D. in 1995, to support the science commissioning and operations of ISO's Short Wavelength Spectrometer (SWS) which exploited new infrared detector technologies, some freshly declassified by the defense industry for science, to cover 2.4 to 45 microns at high spectral resolutions and sensitivities.  ISO's science archive continues to be mined, and science based on SWS observations continues to lead in the number of refereed publications.  I spent the majority of my SWS science support at the ISO Science Operations Centre at Villafranca del Castillo, Spain (VILSPA, now the European Science Astronomy Centre and home to the Herschel Science Centre).  It has been during this time that I gained the unique experience of leading edge space operations for science and first hand witness to the immediate changes in infrared astronomy under staggering volumes of high quality observations flowing into the community.

Professional Experience
  • NASA Herschel Science Center, IPAC, Caltech (2005-present)
    • Senior Staff Scientist, NHSC HIFI instrument team task lead
    • Co-Investigator for NASA/JPL, HIFI, a high velocity resolution heterodyne spectrometer for the Herschel Space Observatory.
    • HIFI Instrument Control Centre calibration scientist, Uplink and AOT commissioning task lead.
  • Spitzer Science Center, IPAC, Caltech (2000-2005)
    • Staff Scientist, InfraRed Spectrometer (IRS) instrument support team for Spitzer Space Telescope.  Instrument Calibration Scientist, Downlink Scientist, telescope pointing and control system team.
  • University of Amsterdam, Astronomical Institute (1999-2000)
    • Post-doctoral research scholar, Infrared group.
  • Netherlands Institute for Space Research, Utrecht (1995-1999)
    • Posts-doctoral research associate.
    • Resident Astronomer, ISO Short Wavelength Spectrometer Instrument Dedicated Team, VILSPA/ESAC, Madrid.
Full CV here (soon).

Full Publications List on ADS here.

Selected Publications
  1. P. Morris; H. Gupta; Z. Nagy; J. Pearson; V. Ossenkopf-Okada; et al. "Herschel/HIFI Observations of C+, CH+, and CH in Orion BN/KL: The Prevailing Role of Ultraviolet Irradiation in CH+ Formation" ApJ 2016, 829, 15,
  2. P. Morris "Measuring eta Carinae's High-Mass Ejecta in the Infrared and Submillimeter" 2015 Wolf-Rayet Stars Potsdam Conference p.155.
  3. P.R. Roelfsema, F.P. Helmich, D. Teyssier, V. Ossenkopf, P. Morris, M. Olberg et al. "In-Orbit Performance of Herschel-HIFI" 2012 A&A 537, 17.
  4. Mauerhan, Jon C.; Van Dyk, Schuyler D.; Morris, Patrick W. "Red Eyes on Wolf-Rayet Stars: 60 New Discoveries via Infrared Color Selection" 2011 AJ 142, 40
  5. Morris, P.; Pearson, J.; Neufeld, D.; Gupta, H.; Herschel HEXOS Team "Contrasting [CII], methylidynium ion CH+, and methanol physical and chemical tracers around Orion KL" Proc. IAU 280 Toledo, Spain, May 30-June 3, 2011, 2011 IAUS 280 266
  6. Mauerhan, Jon C.; Wachter, Stefanie; Morris, Patrick W.; Van Dyk, Schuyler D.; Hoard, D. W. "Discovery of Twin Wolf-Rayet Stars Powering Double Ring Nebulae' 2010 ApJ 724 78
  7. Furness, J. P.; Crowther, P. A.; Morris, P. W.; Barbosa, C. L.; Blum, R. D.; Conti, P. S.; van Dyk, S. D. "Mid-infrared diagnostics of metal-rich HII regions from VLT and Spitzer spectroscopy of young massive stars in W31" 2010 MNRAS 403 1433
  8. Hadfield, L. J.; van Dyk, S. D.; Morris, P. W.; Smith, J. D.; Marston, A. P.; Peterson, D. E. "Searching for hidden Wolf-Rayet stars in the Galactic plane - 15 new Wolf-Rayet stars" 2007 MNRAS 376 248
  9. Morris, Patrick W.; Stolovy, Susan; Wachter, Stefanie; Noriega-Crespo, Alberto; Pannuti, Thomas G.; Hoard, D. W. "Tentative Discovery of a New Supernova Remnant in Cepheus: Unveiling an Elusive Shell in the Spitzer Galactic First Look Survey" 2006 ApJ 640L 179
  10. Crowther, Paul A.; Morris, P. W.; Smith, J. D. "An Ultraviolet to Mid-Infrared Study of the Physical and Wind Properties of HD 164270 (WC9) and Comparison to BD +30 3639 ([WC9])" 2006 ApJ 636 1033
  11. Morris, Patrick W.; Crowther, Paul A.; Houck, Jim R. "Spitzer Space Telescope Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) Spectroscopy of the Prototype Wolf-Rayet Star EZ Canis Majoris (HD 50896)" 2004 ApJS 154 413
  12. Decin, L.; Morris, P. W.; Appleton, P. N.; Charmandaris, V.; Armus, L.; Houck, J. R. "MARCS: Model Stellar Atmospheres and Their Application to the Photometric Calibration of the Spitzer Space Telescope Infrared Spectrograph (IRS)" 2004 ApJS 154 408
  13. Noriega-Crespo, Alberto; Morris, Patrick; Marleau, Francine R.; Carey, Sean; Boogert, Adwin, et al. "A New Look at Stellar Outflows: Spitzer Observations of the HH 46/47 System" 2004 ApJS 154 352
  14. Morris, Patrick W.; Noriega-Crespo, Alberto; Marleau, Francine R.; Teplitz, Harry I.; Uchida, Keven I.; Armus, Lee "Excitation of Molecular Material near the Young Stellar Object LkHα 234 in NGC 7129" 2004 ApJS 154 339
  15. Bernard-Salas, J.; Houck, J. R.; Morris, P. W.; Sloan, G. C.; Pottasch, S. R.; Barry, D. J. "Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) Observations of Large Magellanic Cloud Planetary Nebula SMP 83" 2004 ApJS 154 271
  16. Reach, William T.; Morris, Patrick; Boulanger, François; Okumura, Kory "The mid-infrared spectrum of the zodiacal and exozodiacal light" 2003 Icar 164 384
  17. Vandenbussche, B.; Morris, P. W.; Valentijn, E. A.; Beintema, D. A.; Boxhoorn, D. R. et al. "The Relative Spectral Response Calibration of the ISO-SWS" 2003 ESASP 481 455
  18. Morris, P. W.; Charmandaris, V.; Herter, T.; Armus, L.; Houck, J.; Sloan, G. "Photometric Calibrations for the SIRTF Infrared Spectrograph" 2003 ESASP 481 113
  19. Shipman, R. F.; Morris, P. W.; Beintema, D. A.; Boxhoorn, D.; Feuchtgruber, H "SWS In-flight Calibration" 2003 ESASP 481 107
  20. Lenorzer, A.; Vandenbussche, B.; Morris, P.; de Koter, A.; Geballe, T. R.; Waters, L. B. F. M.; Hony, S.; Kaper, L. "An atlas of 2.4 to 4.1 mu m ISO/SWS spectra of early-type stars" 2002 A&A. 384 473
  21. Williams, P. M.; Kidger, M. R.; van der Hucht, K. A.; Morris, P. W.; Tapia, M. et al. "Episodic dust formation by HD 192641 (WR 137) - II" 2001 MNRAS 324 156
  22. Lellouch, E.; Encrenaz, T.; de Graauw, T.; Erard, S.; Morris, P.; Crovisier, J.; Feuchtgruber, H.; Girard, T.; Burgdorf, M. "The 2.4-45μm spectrum of Mars observed with the Infrared Space Observatory" 2000 P&SS 48 1393
  23. Voors, R. H. M.; Waters, L. B. F. M.; de Koter, A.; Bouwman, J.; Morris, P. W. et al. "Infrared imaging and spectroscopy of the Luminous Blue Variables Wra 751 and AG Car" 2000 A&A 356 501
  24. Morris, P. W.; van der Hucht, K. A.; Crowther, P. A.; Hillier, D. J.; Dessart, L.; Williams, P. M.; Willis, A. J. "A 0.4-20 µm spectroscopic study of the clumped wind of WR 147" 2000 A&A 353 624
  25. Morris, P. W.; Waters, L. B. F. M.; Barlow, M. J.; Lim, T. et al. "Discovery of a massive equatorial torus in the η Carinae stellar system" 1999 Nature 402 502
  26. Crowther, Paul A.; Beck, S. C.; Willis, Allan J.; Conti, Peter S.; Morris, Patrick W.; Sutherland, Ralph S. "Properties of hot stars in the Wolf-Rayet galaxy NGC 5253 from ISO-SWS spectroscopy" 1999 MNRAS 304 654
  27. Voors, R. H. M.; Waters, L. B. F. M.; Morris, P. W.; Trams, N. R.; de Koter, A.; Bouwman, J. "Dust in R71: first detection of crystalline silicates in the LMC" 1999 A&A 341L 67
  28. Waters, L. B. F. M.; Morris, P. W.; Voors, R. H. M.; Lamers, H. J. G. L. M.; Trams, N. R. "Dust in LBV Nebulae" 1998 Ap&SS 255 179
  29. Morris, P. W.; van der Hucht, K. A.; Willis, A. J.; Williams, P. M. "ISO's View on Massive Star Evolution: Neon Abundances in Wolf-Rayet Stars" 1998 Ap&SS 255 157
  30. Willis, A. J.; Dessart, Luc; Crowther, P. A.; Morris, P. W.; Maeder, A.; Conti, P. S.; van der Hucht, K. A. "The neon abundance in WC stars - I. ISO SWS spectroscopy of WR146 (WC6+O)" 1997 MNRAS 290 371
  31. Lamers, H. J. G. L. M.; Najarro, F.; Kudritzki, R. P.; Morris, P. W. et al. "The ISO-SWS spectrum of P Cygni" 1996 A&A 315L 229
  32. Lamers, H. J. G. L. M.; Morris, P. W.; Voors, R. H. M.; van Gent, J. I. et al. "The ISO-SWS spectra of Luminous Blue Variables" 1996 A&A 315L 225
  33. van der Hucht, K. A.; Morris, P. W.; Williams, P. M.; Setia Gunawan, D. Y. A. et al. "ISO-SWS spectrophotometry of galactic Wolf-Rayet stars: preliminary results" 1996 A&A 315L 193
  34. Schaeidt, S. G.; Morris, P. W.; Salama, A.; Vandenbussche, B. et al. "The photometric calibration of the ISO Short Wavelength Spectrometer" 1996 A&A 315L 55
  35. Morris, Patrick W.; Eenens, P. R. J.; Hanson, Margaret M.; Conti, Peter S.; Blum, R. D. "Infrared Spectra of Massive Stars in Transition: WNL, Of, Of/WN, Be, B[e], and Luminous Blue Variable Stars" 1996 ApJ 470 597
  36. Morris, Patrick William "Spectrophotometric Studies of the Winds of Galactic and Magellanic Cloud Wolf-Rayet Stars, 0.1-1.0 µm" 1995 PhDT 35
  37. Morris, Patrick W.; Brownsberger, Kenneth R.; Conti, Peter S.; Massey, Philip; Vacca, William D. "Spectrophotometry of Wolf-Rayet stars. I - Continuum energy distributions" 1993 ApJ 412 324
  38. Conti, Peter S.; Morris, Patrick W. "A new method to determine the interstellar reddening towards WN stars" 1990 AJ 99 898

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